Execution by Einsatzgruppen. The Einsatzgruppen were German mobile killing units that operated within German-occupied territory after Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. The Einsatzgruppen rounded up Jews, Gypsies, the disabled, Communists, and prisoners of war and then murdered them. By the spring of 1943, it is estimated that the Einsatzgruppen had murdered approximately 1.25 million Jews and thousands of others.
16th-century Ottoman talismanic shirt is covered in intricate scripts, including Muhaqqaq, Naskh, Ghubar, Thuluth and square Kufic. This shirt, with its decoration, parallels a group of similar Ottoman shirts in the Topkapi Saray Museum, all dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, with the crescent moon and cypress trees so common in 16th-century Ottoman styles (shown above from the front, below from the back).